IHLC @ Olympics & Invitationals

While the most frequent IIHF senior tournament where the International Hockey Lineal Championship is most contested is the annual IIHF World Championship, the IIHF also recognizes two other major tournaments as senior competitions, the Winter Olympics and Invitational tournaments (including the Summit Series, Canada Cup and World Cup Of Hockey) in its repertoire. Here’s a bit of a history behind each tournament, and in particular, the IHLC championship lineage through each tournament.


Winter Olympic Games – Men’s
After being introduced at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium as an exhibition sport, Olympic ice hockey has been contested at all 23 incarnations of the Winter Olympics. While the 1920 tournament implemented a Bergvall system tournament, the Winter Games from 1924 to 1988 instituted a round robin format, where medals were awarded on points. 1992 was the first Olympics to feature a knockout tournament to crown medalists. While many Gold Medal winners also leave the Olympics with the International Hockey Lineal Championship, the unique variations in tournament format meant that there was always the possibility for a team to win the IHLC, but not advance to the finals, and leave the Olympics without gold, but as champions nonetheless.

1920 Antwerp 🇧🇪
🇨🇦 CANADA 
keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

1924 Chamonix 🇫🇷
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

1928 St. Moritz 🇨🇭
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

1932 Lake Placid 🇺🇸
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen 🇩🇪
🇨🇦 CANADA enters with IHLC
🇬🇧 GREAT BRITAIN wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

1948 St. Moritz 🇨🇭
🇨🇭 SWITZERLAND enters with IHLC
🇨🇿 CZECHOSLOVAKIA leaves with IHLC
🇨🇦 CANADA wins Gold Medal

1952 Oslo 🇳🇴
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

1956 Cortina d’Ampezzo 🇮🇹
🇨🇦 CANADA enters with IHLC
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES win IHLC during tournament
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

1960 Squaw Valley 🇺🇸
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION enters with IHLC
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

1964 Innsbruck 🇦🇹
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

1968 Grenoble 🇫🇷
🇸🇪 SWEDEN enters with IHLC
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal
🇨🇿 CZECHOSLOVAKIA wins IHLC during tournament, leaves with IHLC

1972 Sapporo 🇯🇵
🇨🇦 CANADA does not participate, IHLC is not contended
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION wins Gold Medal

1976 Innsbruck 🇦🇹
🇫🇮 FINLAND enters with IHLC
🇨🇿 CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 🇵🇱 POLAND, 🇺🇸 UNITED STATES win IHLC during tournament
🇩🇪 WEST GERMANY leaves with IHLC
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION wins Gold Medal

1980 Lake Placid 🇺🇸
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION enters with IHLC
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

1984 Sarajevo 🇷🇸
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

1988 Calgary 🇨🇦
🇨🇦 CANADA enters with IHLC, wins during tournament and leaves with IHLC
🇫🇮 FINLAND, 🇨🇿 CZECHOSLOVAKIA win IHLC during tournament
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION wins Gold Medal

1992 Albertville (Méribel) 🇫🇷
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES enters with IHLC
🇷🇺 UNIFIED TEAM wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

1994 Lillehammer 🇳🇴
🇸🇰 SLOVAKIA enters with IHLC
🇷🇺 RUSSIA wins IHLC during tournament
🇸🇪 SWEDEN wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

1998 Nagano 🇯🇵
🇰🇿 KAZAKHSTAN enters with IHLC
🇷🇺 RUSSIA wins IHLC during tournament
🇨🇿 CZECHIA wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2002 Salt Lake City (Provo / West Valley City) 🇺🇸
🇨🇿 CZECHIA enters with IHLC
🇸🇪 SWEDEN, 🇧🇾 BELARUS win IHLC during tournament
🇨🇦 CANADA wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2006 Turin 🇮🇹
🇷🇺 RUSSIA enters with IHLC
🇸🇰 SLOVAKIA🇨🇿 CZECHIA win IHLC during tournament
🇸🇪 SWEDEN wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2010 Vancouver 🇨🇦
🇫🇮 FINLAND enters with IHLC
🇸🇪 SWEDEN, 🇸🇰 SLOVAKIA win IHLC during tournament
🇨🇦 CANADA wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2014 Sochi 🇷🇺
🇫🇮 FINLAND enters with IHLC
🇨🇦 CANADA wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2018 PyeongChang (Gangneung) 🇰🇷
🇫🇮 FINLAND enters with IHLC
🇸🇪 SWEDEN. 🇩🇪 GERMANY win IHLC during tournament
🇷🇺 OLYMPIC ATHLETES FROM RUSSIA wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC


Winter Olympic Games – Women’s
After picking up considerable steam throughout the world, Women’s Olympic hockey was added to the Olympic sports roster for the 1998 Nagano Games. Since then, while the Games have largely been a two-horse race between perennial rivals Canada and the United States, new emerging nations have come forward to compete, including a shock upset of Sweden to claim Silver at the 2006 Turin games. All women’s tournaments thus far have resulted in the Gold Medal winner also winning or reclaiming the IHLC.

1998 Nagano 🇯🇵
🇨🇦 CANADA enters with IHLC
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2002 Salt Lake City (Provo / West Valley City) 🇺🇸
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES enters with IHLC
🇨🇦 CANADA wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2006 Turin 🇮🇹
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES enters with IHLC
🇸🇪 SWEDEN wins IHLC during tournament
🇨🇦 CANADA wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2010 Vancouver 🇨🇦
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

2014 Sochi 🇷🇺
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES enters with IHLC
🇨🇦 CANADA wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2018 PyeongChang (Gangneung) 🇰🇷
🇨🇦 CANADA enters with IHLC
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC


IIHF-NHL / WHA Invitationals
Since the 1930s, the top hockey players in North America or Western Europe that played professionally in the NHL were barred by the IIHF from participating in any international tournaments, as teams from the Eastern Bloc could proudly bring forth their powerhouse players as “amateurs,” although they certainly played to the calibre of professional talent. In 1972, fed up with the lack of competition between NHL professionals in Canada and the dominant Red Army team of the Soviet Union, the Summit Series best-of-eight tournament was formulated to crown the best in the world. The popularity of the series opened the door for a second Summit Series in 1974 (featuring a Canadian side of WHA all-stars), and a larger-scale global tournament, the Canada Cup, starting in 1981. After 5 Canada Cups in various cities across North America, the tournament was truly taken worldwide, with the first World Cup of Hockey in 1996 hosted in six countries. Again, while most tournament champions would also leave with the IHLC, differing formats (head-to-head, round robin, knockout tournament) allowed for some unique IHLC title changes to occur.

1972 Summit Series 🇨🇦 🇷🇺
🇨🇦 CANADA enters and leaves with IHLC, wins Summit Series
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION (x2), 🇨🇦 CANADA win IHLC during series

1974 Summit Series 🇨🇦 🇷🇺
🇨🇦 CANADA enters with IHLC
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION wins IHLC during tournament, wins Summit Series and leaves with IHLC

1976 Canada Cup 🇨🇦 🇺🇸
🇨🇦 CANADA enters with IHLC, wins Canada Cup
🇨🇿 CZECHOSLOVAKIA wins IHLC during tournament
🇸🇪 SWEDEN leaves with IHLC

1981 Canada Cup 🇨🇦
🇨🇦 CANADA enters with IHLC
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION wins Canada Cup and leaves with IHLC

1984 Canada Cup 🇨🇦 🇺🇸
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION enters with IHLC
🇨🇦 CANADA wins IHLC during tournament, wins Canada Cup and leaves with IHLC

1987 Canada Cup 🇨🇦 🇺🇸
🇸🇪 SWEDEN enters with IHLC
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES🇨🇦 CANADA
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION win IHLC during tournament
🇨🇦 CANADA wins IHLC during tournament, wins Canada Cup and leaves with IHLC

1991 Canada Cup 🇨🇦 🇺🇸
🇫🇮 FINLAND 
enters with IHLC
🇷🇺 SOVIET UNION, 🇺🇸 UNITED STATES win IHLC during tournament
🇨🇦 CANADA wins IHLC during tournament, wins Canada Cup and leaves with IHLC

1996 World Cup Of Hockey 🇨🇦 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇩🇪 🇸🇪 🇺🇸
🇷🇺 RUSSIA 
enters with IHLC
🇨🇦 CANADA (x2) wins IHLC during tournament
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES wins IHLC during tournament, wins World Cup and leaves with IHLC

2004 World Cup Of Hockey 🇨🇦 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇩🇪 🇸🇪 🇺🇸
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins World Cup

2016 World Cup Of Hockey 🇨🇦
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins World Cup


Euro Hockey Tour
Established as a preparatory tournament for the 1998 Olympics, the Euro Hockey Tour is a partnership between the national associations of Czechia, Russia, Sweden and Finland, often hosting four invitational tournaments, one in each country, per season. While some seasons have seen other nations invited to the tournament, the Tour is dominated by the four core teams, hosting the Karjala Tournament (Finland), Channel One Cup (Russia), Sweden Hockey Games and Czech Hockey Games every year between November and May.

1996-97 🇨🇦 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
IHLC is not contended
🇫🇮 FINLAND wins Gold Medal

1997-98 🇨🇦 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇨🇿 CZECHIA enters with IHLC
🇸🇪 SWEDEN leaves with IHLC
🇨🇿 CZECHIA wins Gold Medal

1998-99 🇨🇦 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇸🇪 SWEDEN enters with IHLC
🇷🇺 RUSSIA, 🇨🇿 CZECHIA win IHLC during tournament
🇫🇮 FINLAND leaves with IHLC
🇸🇪 SWEDEN wins Gold Medal

1999-2000 🇨🇦 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇨🇿 CZECHIA enters and leaves with IHLC
🇫🇮 FINLAND, 🇷🇺 RUSSIA, 🇨🇦 CANADA win IHLC during tournament
🇫🇮 FINLAND wins Gold Medal

2000-01 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇸🇪 SWEDEN enters with IHLC
🇫🇮 FINLAND, 🇷🇺 RUSSIA win IHLC during tournament
🇨🇿 CZECHIA leaves with IHLC
🇫🇮 FINLAND wins Gold Medal

2001-02 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇷🇺 RUSSIA enters with IHLC
🇫🇮 FINLAND, 🇷🇺 RUSSIA win IHLC during tournament
🇨🇿 CZECHIA leaves with IHLC
🇫🇮 FINLAND wins Gold Medal

2002-03 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇨🇿 CZECHIA enters with IHLC
🇫🇮 FINLAND wins IHLC during tournament
🇷🇺 RUSSIA leaves with IHLC
🇫🇮 FINLAND wins Gold Medal

2003-04 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
IHLC is not contended
🇫🇮 FINLAND wins Gold Medal

2004-05 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
IHLC is not contended
🇷🇺 RUSSIA wins Gold Medal

2005-06 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇨🇿 CZECHIA enters with IHLC
🇸🇪 SWEDEN, 🇨🇿 CZECHIA, 🇷🇺 RUSSIA win IHLC during tournament
🇫🇮 FINLAND leaves with IHLC
🇷🇺 RUSSIA wins Gold Medal

2006-07 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇷🇺 RUSSIA enters with IHLC
🇫🇮 FINLAND, 🇷🇺 RUSSIA win IHLC during tournament
🇸🇪 SWEDEN leaves with IHLC, wins Gold Medal

2007-08 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
IHLC is not contended
🇷🇺 RUSSIA wins Gold Medal

2008-09 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇷🇺 RUSSIA enters with IHLC
🇸🇪 SWEDEN leaves with IHLC
🇷🇺 RUSSIA wins Gold Medal

2009-10 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇸🇪 SWEDEN enters with IHLC
🇨🇿 CZECHIA, 🇸🇪 SWEDEN, 🇷🇺 RUSSIA win IHLC during tournament
🇫🇮 FINLAND leaves with IHLC, wins Gold Medal

2010-11 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
IHLC is not contended
🇷🇺 RUSSIA wins Gold Medal

2011-12 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇷🇺 RUSSIA enters with IHLC
🇫🇮 FINLAND, 🇷🇺 RUSSIA win IHLC during tournament
🇸🇪 SWEDEN leaves with IHLC
🇨🇿 CZECHIA wins Gold Medal

2012-13 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇫🇮 FINLAND enters and leaves with IHLC
🇨🇿 CZECHIA, 🇸🇪 SWEDEN win IHLC during tournament
🇷🇺 RUSSIA wins Gold Medal

2013-14 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇷🇺 RUSSIA enters with IHLC
🇸🇪 SWEDEN wins IHLC during tournament
🇫🇮 FINLAND leaves with IHLC, wins Gold Medal 

2014-15 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇸🇪 SWEDEN enters and leaves with IHLC, wins Gold Medal
🇷🇺 RUSSIA, 🇨🇿 CZECHIA win IHLC during tournament

2015-16 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
IHLC is not contended
🇸🇪 SWEDEN wins Gold Medal

2016-17 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
IHLC is not contended
🇷🇺 RUSSIA wins Gold Medal

2017-18 🇨🇦 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺 🇰🇷 🇨🇭
🇸🇪 SWEDEN enters with IHLC
🇫🇮 FINLAND wins IHLC during tournament
🇨🇿 CZECHIA leaves with IHLC
🇫🇮 FINLAND wins Gold Medal

2018-19 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇸🇪 SWEDEN enters with IHLC
🇷🇺 RUSSIA, 🇨🇿 CZECHIA, 🇸🇪 SWEDEN, 🇫🇮 FINLAND win IHLC during tournament
🇷🇺 RUSSIA leaves with IHLC, wins Gold Medal

2019-20 🇨🇿 🇫🇮 🇸🇪 🇷🇺
🇫🇮 FINLAND enters with IHLC


Three / Four Nations Cup
Established after the Pacific Rim Championship was cancelled in 1995, the tournament invited the top three women’s hockey nations to face off on an annual basis, with Sweden joining in 2000 to establish the tournament as the Four Nations Cup. The 2001 tournament reverted back to three teams after the United States withdrew following the September 11 attacks, but the tournament has held with the same teams consistently since 2002, rotating between the four countries to host on a regular basis.

1996 Cornwall / Kingston / Ottawa / Smiths Falls 🇨🇦
🇨🇦 CANADA enters and leaves with IHLC, wins Gold Medal
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES wins IHLC during tournament

1997 Belleville / Nepean 🇨🇦 / Burlington / Lake Placid 🇺🇸
🇨🇦 CANADA enters with IHLC
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

1998 Kuortane / Kurikka / Närpes 🇫🇮
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

1999 Montréal / Sherbrooke 🇨🇦
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

2000 Provo 🇺🇸
🇨🇦 CANADA enters and leaves with IHLC, wins Gold Medal
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES wins IHLC during tournament

2001 Tampere / Vierumäki 🇫🇮
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES does not participate, IHLC is not contended
🇨🇦 CANADA wins Gold Medal

2002 Kitchener 🇨🇦
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

2003 Skövde 🇸🇪
🇨🇦 CANADA enters with IHLC
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2004 Lake Placid 🇺🇸
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

2005 Hämeenlinna / Tampere 🇫🇮
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES enters with IHLC
🇨🇦 CANADA wins IHLC during tournament, wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2006 Kitchener 🇨🇦
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

2007 Leksand 🇸🇪
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

2008 Lake Placid 🇺🇸
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES enters with IHLC, wins Gold Medal
🇨🇦 CANADA wins IHLC during tournament
🇸🇪 SWEDEN wins IHLC during tournament and leaves with IHLC

2009 Kerava / Tikkurila / Vierumäki 🇫🇮
🇨🇦 CANADA enters and leaves with IHLC, wins Gold Medal
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES wins IHLC during tournament

2010 St. John’s 🇨🇦
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES enters with IHLC
🇨🇦 CANADA 
wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2011 Nyköping 🇸🇪
🇨🇦 CANADA enters with IHLC
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES 
wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2012 Kerava / Tikkurila 🇫🇮
🇨🇦 CANADA enters with IHLC
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES 
wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2013 Lake Placid 🇺🇸
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

2014 Kamloops 🇨🇦
🇨🇦 CANADA keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

2015 Kovland / Sundsvall 🇸🇪
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

2016 Järvenpää / Kerava / Vierumäki 🇫🇮
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES enters and leaves with IHLC, wins Gold Medal
🇨🇦 CANADA wins IHLC during tournament

2017 Tampa / Wesley Chapel 🇺🇸
🇨🇦 CANADA 
enters with IHLC
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES wins Gold Medal and leaves with IHLC

2018 Saskatoon 🇨🇦
🇺🇸 UNITED STATES keeps IHLC throughout, wins Gold Medal

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